你所不知道的體脂肪與行為心理(下)

你所不知道的體脂肪與行為心理(下)

運動心理 孟庭教練 訓練

上集我們先細說了人體脂肪種類、儲存的方式,及各種脂肪的功能;也討論了其對生理上的好處與壞處。還沒瞭解脂肪存在人體的必要嗎?

如果都理解身體上存有脂肪是一件正常的事情,為什麼現今社會大家都在追求腹肌線條、低體脂這件事情呢?除了每個人的審美觀大不相同外(這裡尊重每個人的選擇),社會環境的影響下,可能也間接改變大眾對於外表呈現(擁有明顯的腹肌),及體脂肪的迷思與看法(越低越健康?)。

 

低體脂與個人行為的關係

美國心理學家Bandura的社會學習理論或許可以加以解釋這個現象。

其理論認為個人的認知、行為與社會環境(無論是實體或媒體虛擬)三者會相互作用,影響人類的行為。

當社群媒體或外在環境、主流意識、甚至同儕間,充斥著無數擁有減脂減重、低體脂提示暗示的內容時,人們會觀察學習、甚至將其示為一種「示範」成為效仿的對象。

 

當認為擁有腹肌線條才代表著美麗與健康的同時,內在會產生自我調節的過程,進行觀察、判斷與反應,影響外在行為的產生(減肥、減脂、運動、節食等行為)。最後,當外在改變(腹肌/變瘦/變壯),或得到他人認同時,則產生自我效能的反饋,會加強執行此一過程的動機,滿足自信、自尊等感受。

De Ridder, Kroese, Evers, Adriaanse& Gillebaart(2017) 研究曾表明,社會環境、個人自我調節能力及習慣意圖,是影響健康飲食的最重要因素。

Lubans、Plotnikoff 、Morgan、Dewar、Costigan與Collins也曾於2011年使用Bandura的理論為模型,調查澳洲青春期女性的飲食行為與其意圖、自我效能的關係。研究結果也的確顯示出,健康的飲食行為與自我效能產生正向關係。換言之,當自我滿足、自尊越高,則越能夠增強此一行為的產生(Karami, Nekuei, Kazemi& Paknahad,2018;Dewar, Plotnikoff, Morgan, Okely, Costigan&Lubans,2013)。

 

心理層面的正反效果

是不是感覺有點熟悉?環境、認知與行為,三者無限循環下,造就了許多人追求低體脂的過程。當脂過高導致可能造成身體危害時,適當的進行飲食控制、營養素調整及運動頻率,不僅可以讓身理機能更好,對於心理層面,例如憂鬱症、妊娠糖尿病婦女身心理健康,或是自信、自我效能及自尊表現,也有正向影響(Owen&Corfe,2017;Gilbert, Gross, Lanzi, Quansah, Puder&Horsch,2019;Knox&Muros,2017)。

 

但過度的飲食控制及訓練(延伸閱讀:練得越多一定越有效嗎?)就正確嗎?

長期過度追求低體脂除了可能在生理上產生問題或變化,同樣地,心理問題也可能一併發生;包含情緒不穩、憂鬱、易怒、引發焦慮。2016年,Durguerian、Bougard、Drogou、Sauvet、Chennaoui 與 Filaire 針對專業舉重選手進行飲食控制與心理狀況研究發現,體重減輕對於情緒狀態、疲勞與壓力的不適增加,也顯示出,長期進行嚴格的飲食控制、熱量攝取控制對於心靈與生理上同樣也會帶來壓力及問題。

 

追求低體脂的目的

在追求的低體脂或「明顯」腹肌線條之前,請好好思考:對你而言,低體脂的表現是為了美麗好看而滿足心理層面的理想實現,還是真的為了健康。

 

生活、運動、飲食、身心狀態,都是人生的一部份。

為了追求低體脂肪而少了其中任何一項,甚至將「運動示為飲食的懲罰」,真的值得而且快樂的嗎?

 

CITATION//

American College of Sports Medicine – www.acsm.org

Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) – http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/caps/; 215.898.7021

Penn Women’s Center – http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/pwc/main2.html, 215.898.8611

National Eating Disorders website – http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org

Student Health (General Website) – http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/shs/; 215.746.3535

Student Health (Men’s Health) – http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/shs/menshealth.php; 215.746.3535

Student Health (Women’s Health) – http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/shs/whealth.php; 215.746.3535

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